# How to Prove It - Solutions

## Chapter - 2, Quantificational Logic

### Section - 2.1 - Quantifiers

• $\forall$ is used for statements which are true for all possible input values.
• $\exists$ is used for statements which are true for atleast one input value.
• Quantifiers binds a variable. A variable that is bound by a quantifier can always be replaced with a new variable without changing the meaning of the statement, and it is often possible to paraphrase the statement without mentioning the bound variable at all.
• Changing the order of quantifiers can change the meaning of the sentence. $\forall x \exists y (x + y = 10)$ is not same as $\exists x \forall y (x + y = 10)$ .
• However, Changing the order of quantifiers will not change the meaning of the sentence if all the quantifiers are same. $\exists x \exists y (x + y = 10)$ is not same as $\exists y \exists x (x + y = 10)$ .

### Solutions

Soln1

(a) $\forall x ( \exists y F( x, y) \to S(x) )$
where $F(x,y)$ means x has forgiven y.
and $S(x)$ means x is a Saint.

(b) $\lnot \exists x ( C(x) \land \forall y (D(y) \to S(x,y) )$
where $C(x)$ means x is student of calculus class.
and $D(y)$ means y is student of descrete class.
and $S(x, y)$ means x is smarter than y.

(c) $\forall x (\lnot(x = mary) \to L(x,mary))$
where $L(x,y)$ means x likes Mary.

(d) $\exists y (P(y) \land S(J, y)) \land \exists y (P(y) \land S(R, y))$
where $S(J,y)$ means Jane saw y.
where $S(R,y)$ means Roger saw y.
where $P(y)$ means y is a Police officer.

(e) $\exists y (P(y) \land S(J, y) \land S(R, y))$
where $S(J,y)$ means Jane saw y.
where $S(R,y)$ means Roger saw y.
where $P(y)$ means y is a Police officer.

Soln2

(a) $\forall x (BRC(x) \to \exists y (U(y,x) \land R(y))$
where $BRC(x)$ means Bought Rolls Royce with cash.
and $R(x)$ means x is Rich.
and $U(y,x)$ means y is uncle of x.

(b) $\exists x(D(x) \land M(x)) \to \forall y( \exists x (D(x) \land F(y,x)) \to Q(y))$
where $D(x)$ means x lives in Dome,
and $M(x)$ means x has Measles,
and $F(y,x)$ y is a friend of x,
and $Q(y)$ y is quarantined.

(c) $\lnot \exists x F(x) \to \forall x(A(x) \to \exists y (D(y) \land T(x,y))$
where $F(x)$ means x is failed,
and $A(x)$ means x got A,
and $D(x)$ means x got D,
and $T(x,y)$ means x teaches y.

(d) $\forall x D(x) \to D(Jones)$
where $D(x)$ x can do it.

(e) $D(Jones) \to \forall x D(x)$
where $D(x)$ means x can do it.

Soln3

(a) $\forall z (z > x \to z > y)$. Here $z$ is a free variable as it is not bound to any quantifiers.

(b) $\forall a ((a \ge -2) \leftrightarrow \exists x (a{x^2} + 4x - 2 = 0))$. No free variables.

(c) $\forall x ((x^3 - 3x \lt 3) \to (x < 10))$. No free variables.

(d) $\exists x \exists y ((x^2 + 5x = w) \land (4-y^2 = w)) \to (-10 \lt w \lt 10)$. w is a free variable.

Soln4

(a) All unmarried man are unhappy.

(b) y is sister of x’s parent.

Soln5

(a) All primes numbers except 2 are odd.

(b) There exists a perfect number which is greater than or equal to all other perfect numbers.

Soln6

(a) There is at-least one person who is parent of everyone. False.

(b) Everyone is a parent of atleast one person. False.

(c) There are no parents. False.

(d) There at-least exists one person who is not a parent of anyone. True.

(e) There at-least exists some person who is not a parent of someone. True.

Soln7

(a) For all $x$ there exists a $y$ such that $2x - y = 0$. As $y = 2x$. For every natural number $x$, We have a $y$ which is also natural number. True

(b) There exists a $y$ such that for every value of $x$, $2x - y = 0$. False.

(c) For all $x$ there exists a $y$ such that $x - 2y = 0$. As $x = 2y$. For every natural number $x$, We dont have y as a natural number. eg: x = 3, y is not natural number. False.

(d) It is clear from the statement that if x < 10 then y must be < 9. True.

(e) There exists y and z such that sum of y and z is 100. True.

(f) For x = 200. y > 200. Thus clearly z must be negative for statement to become true. But x,y,z are natural numbers. Thus False.

Soln8

(a) True

(b) False

(c) True. y can take fractional values.

(d) False. Here y can take values like 91/100(9.1), 92/100(9.2).. Thus y < 9 is not true.

(e) True

(f) True. Compared to last question, Now z can be negative. Thus statement is true.

Soln9

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) True

(e) True

(f) True