Chapter - 3, Proofs

Section - 3.2 - Proofs Involving Negations and Conditionals


Summary

  • There can be following ways to prove a goal of the form :
    • Convert or re-express the goal to some other form and then use one of the proof strategies for this other goal form. This is generally possible when the original goal is complex goal(containing many components).
    • Proof by contradiction: by assuming the goal is true and try to reach a contradiction. On a contradiction, it can be concluded that P must be false.
  • Proof by contradiction is vague as it requires to produce a contradiction by proving something that is known to be false. One approach can be:
    • To use a given of the form : Try making as goal. Now, If can be proved, then the proof will be complete, because contradicts the given .
  • If not using the strategy to prove by contradiction, One approach can be:
    • To re-express/convert a given of the form of , to some other form.
  • In previous section, strategy to prove goal of the form of was described.
  • Apart from all the above strategies, One more strategy can be:
    • To use a given of the form of . Many strategies for using givens suggests ways for drawing inferences from the givens. These strategies are called rules of inference. There can be following two Rules of inference for using given of the form of :
      • Rule modus ponens : If both and are true, then must also be true.
      • Rule modus tollens : If is true and is false, then must also be false.
  • Till now following strategies are covered:
    • To prove a goal of the form .
    • To use a given of the form of .
    • To prove a goal of the form of .
    • To use a given of the form of .

Soln1

(a)

Suppose . Since , it follows . Similarly, since , it follows . Thus if then , or .

(b) Suppose . For , using contra-positive for proof. Suppose , it follows . Since , it follows . Thus , or . It follows that .


Soln2

(a)

Suppose . Since , it follows . Since , using contrapositive , it follows . Thus, .

(b)

Simplifying , gives . Since P, it follows , which is always true.


Soln3

Suppose . Since , it follows that . Now since , it follows that . Thus .


Soln4

Suppose . Since , it follows that . And is equivalent to . Since , it follows that . Thus .


Soln5

Suppose , which means and . Since , it follows that . Since and , it follows that . This contradicts the given: . Thus .


Soln6

Since and , it follows that . Suppose , then it follows that . But it contradicts with the given . Thus .


Soln7

Suppose . Since , it follows that . But this contradicts the given that . Thus .


Soln8

Suppose . Since , it follows that . Similarly, . Thus there are four possible cases:

  • Case 1: and .
  • Case 2: and .
  • Case 3: and . This is not possible because and . But in this case .
  • Case 4: and . This is also not possible because and . But in this case .

Thus only Case 1 and Case 2 are possible. It follows that .


Soln9

Suppose . We will prove , using contra-positive. Suppose , it follows that . Thus we have .


Soln10

Simplifying , gives . Suppose . Suppose , it follows that , or . Thus we have .


Soln11

(a) Reverse of , is . Thus reverse of the conclusion used in proof is wrong.

(b) Using , and , gives . Thus conclusion is not correct for the given , and .


Soln12

(a) Statement:
Since and , then .
is not correct.

(b) Lets say , and . Now if , the theorem is not correct.


Leaving Problems 13 to 16, as all involve truth tables and such problems were already solved in earlier chapters.


Soln17

Suppose . Suppose , it follows that , or or . Thus for and , there is no contradiction. Thus theorem is not correct.